This chapter examines the key provisions of the European legal framework on consumer Alternative Dispute Resolution (ADR), which are formed by the ADR Directive 2013/11/EU and Online Dispute Resolution (ODR) Regulation 524/2013. These instruments seek to increase the availability of high-quality ADR/ODR schemes as well as to encourage their use. The ADR Directive requires Member States to ensure the provision and availability of ADR schemes that comply with minimum legal standards when resolving disputes between traders and consumers. Participation by businesses in ADR remain voluntary in most economic sectors, but businesses must inform consumers about certified ADR schemes. The ODR Regulation mandates the European Commission to maintain a pan-European ODR Platform that operates as a single point of entry for resolving online consumer complaints arising from e-commerce. The platform, which has been fully operational from January 2016, links complainants to nationally certified ADR schemes, which are able to use the ODR platform to resolve domestic and cross-border disputes.
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