Chapter 25: Critical perspectives on AI in education: political economy, discrimination, commercialization, governance and ethics
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AI in education is not only a challenging area of technical development and educational innovation, but increasingly the focus of critical analysis informed by the social sciences, philosophy and theory. This chapter provides an overview of critical perspectives on AI in education (AIED), highlighting the interdisciplinary and multisector historical development of AIED; the political economy of AIED; the emergence of ethical issues of bias and discrimination; the expansion of commercial “edu-businesses” and “Big Tech” companies promising AI solutions in education; the role of AI in educational policy and governance; and the recent emergence of AIED ethics proposals and frameworks. The purpose is to highlight the need for interdisciplinary approaches to AI in education that would involve the expertise of learning scientists, computer scientists and social scientists working together productively and critically to design and assess the results and implications of AIED.

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