This chapter describes the motives and objectives of pricing transport externalities like carbon emissions (CO2). The main emitter of CO2 in the transport sector is road traffic, and much of that is due to the usage of cars. The focus of the chapter when describing different policies used to reduce CO2 emissions from transport activities, therefore, is policies addressing emissions related to cars and light vehicles in general. The chapter describes a range of polices, some with the purpose of influencing the usage of cars, and others, car ownership.
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