Chapter 3: A gendered multi-level model of STEM entrepreneurship
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There is a longstanding and persistent gender disparity in STEM entrepreneurship with women far less represented in all stages of the STEM entrepreneurial career. This chapter introduces a multi-level explanation of the gendered nature of STEM entrepreneurship. Using social psychology ideas such as social identity and social categorization, we discuss how as individuals, entrepreneurs and stakeholders (e.g., investors), contribute to the lack of representation of women in STEM and entrepreneurship. We then build on a multi-level perspective by providing a reflection on current masculinity contest cultures that are present in both STEM and entrepreneurship fields. This multi-level lens is used to offer ideas on how to shift the current competitive framework towards more relational practices and cultures that benefit women, and all actors, in the STEM entrepreneurship ecosystem. We conclude with actionable steps that actors in the STEM entrepreneurship ecosystem can take in order to create a true entrepreneurial belonging for women in STEM.

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