The rise of so-called emerging powers has led to renewed interest in South-South Cooperation (SSC) as an alternative to traditional North-South relations in international development cooperation. While SSC was initially framed in terms of transregional cooperation on eye-level, in recent years the greater international engagement of emerging powers has given impetus to new debates about its potentials and pitfalls. These debates revolve around the question of whether emerging powers really have the intention to challenge the dominant structures of global capitalist development, or whether they in fact reproduce these structures through SSC, while seeking to enhance their own international stature. Such critique of a "Southern neo- colonialism" calls into question emerging powers' discourse about an evolving South-South international development paradigm understood as a more horizontal form of transregional cooperation. This chapter outlines and discusses this controversy along the examples of two selected emerging powers, India and China.
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