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After the collapse of the Soviet Union, Eurasian regionalism emerged as a tool of reducing the economic, societal, and political costs of disintegration. However, what started as a tool of "civilized divorce," turned out to be a sui generis phenomenon. The bottom-up regionalization of the 2000s confirmed the importance of non-state actors (corporations and ethnic networks of migrants) as factors of region-building. The establishment of the Customs Union and the Eurasian Economic Union in 2010 and 2015 showed that even regions populated by authoritarian regimes after two decades of predominantly rhetorical regional integration initiatives can create functioning economic regional organizations (ROs). At the same time, the EAEU also shows limits of regionalism under certain conditions.

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