Chapter 5: Longitudinal research methods for studying processes of organizational change
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The chapter aims to describe the main topics involving longitudinal research designs. The parameter is the answer to the question about the best way to collect and analyze data in organizations over time. The entire chapter will be anchored in theory, research design, and analysis of change. In addition to providing a technical review, our goal is to provide scholars with a unique and useful source to help them develop and evaluate longitudinal research. For all sections, examples of research that portray topics and subjects approached will be used. The text will address epistemological dimensions related to longitudinal research, with discussions about temporal perspectives (how time should be considered in studies), causal inference, and the importance of the context as the cornerstone for conclusions of the studies. Types of longitudinal design will be addressed, considering possibilities of experimental research, cross-sectional designs and repeated measures, and correlational and qualitative data. The challenges present in reliability of measures, treatment of missing data (attrition), and recall of respondents will also be discussed based on practical cases. Finally, the chapter will address techniques of data analysis in longitudinal research: repeated measures with general linear model, panel analysis, latent growth curve, other models of structural equations, multilevel models, and time series. Qualitative data analysis in longitudinal designs will also be discussed in the light of the most efficient ways of generating data in longitudinal designs.

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