This chapter explores the car industry as a 'laboratory of experiments' at times of disruptive technological change. Commencing with a brief precis of historical transformations, it goes on to an overview of the current debate on industry 4.0 broadly defined and discusses the impact of new technologies on the nature of manufacturing, on the reorganisation of old industrial spaces, as well as the emergence of new ones. Such industrial transformation will be specifically discussed in relation to the automotive sector, which has been historically at the forefront of technological innovation and adoption given few other mass consumption goods embody such a complexity and variety of technologies. We will discuss how automotive is a testing ground not only for the adoption of automation and AI to increase production efficiency and flexibility in new cyber-physical systems of production, but on the fundamental transformations including the green transition and new business models in manufacturing and broader mobility.
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