An energy transition is needed to mitigate climate change, meaning that the combustion of fossil fuels must be replaced with low- and zero-carbon energy solutions. Such a transformation relies on substantial technological innovation and change processes in energy production, distribution and consumption. Drawing on the sustainability transition literature, we provide an overview of the socio-technical transformation dynamics and processes associated with this on-going energy transition. For this purpose, the chapter reviews the multi-level perspective and technological innovation system frameworks, and the recent elaborations outlining an industrial perspective on sustainability transitions. To illustrate these, we provide two empirical cases from Norway. We conclude by arguing that more attention to industrial perspectives in energy transitions is warranted to 1) better understand the crucial industrial upscaling processes necessary for the acceleration of energy transitions, and 2) to explore policy perspectives that may contribute to a sustainable industrial transformation and just transitions.
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