Chapter 23: Socially just educational administration and leadership in Islamic cultures
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This chapter provides an overview of the foundations, development and current forms and issues of the Islamic tradition of social justice for educational administration and leadership. While Islamic social justice applies to all strata of education from schools to higher education, research institutes, government departments, Non-Governmental Organisations, and other parts of the educational system of a country, this chapter will focus primarily on administration and leadership in schools. The approach taken here also regards social justice as a phenomenon that exists on several levels: on the individual level in conscious and unconscious ways, related to identity, social action, morality, and religious values and requirements; on group levels in social interaction, within the social institution of the family, among colleagues and students, and government officials; on organisational and other social institutional levels like culture, social structures, judiciary and legal principles and also on international levels in inter-state relations, participation in regional structures like the Gulf Cooperation Council and Arab League, and with the UN and NGOs on international levels. The approach adopted in this chapter is an interpretive constructivist one recognising the importance of context and the dynamic nature of social reality. Nevertheless, the subject of this chapter, Islamic social justice, similar to that of many other religious systems, consists of foundational values and principles that are not constructed - they are given and ordained - and exist in the interrelation between the higher-order non-historical reality on a transcendent level, with their varied embodiments in groups, cultures, societies and contextual conditions that affect meaning. There are also external influences that are important such as UN resolutions, globalisation forces affecting education in Muslim countries (seen by some to be social injustices to non-hegemonic countries) and modernisation.

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