Chapter 9: Practical applications of participation income
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At the end of the 1990s and early 2000s, when participation income (PI) model was first presented and discussed, there was very little empirical knowledge about the potential consequences of the model. The situation has changed since then. No country has implemented PI exactly as Anthony Atkinson suggests. However, the Netherlands, Germany, Denmark and Finland have borrowed elements of PI in their social assistance reforms. The examples from four countries demonstrate that in real life, the administrative hurdles for implementing PI are not insurmountable. Social assistance benefits can be combined with individualized services, which consider individual circumstances and needs and which can indeed results in positive outcomes. However, that is the case only when PI is not rolled out as a universal programme.