The STIRPAT (STochastic Impacts by Regression on Population, Affluence, and Technology), based on the venerable I=PAT model, is widely used in socio-ecological analyses. The structure of STIRPAT inherently takes into consideration economic inequalities across social units (e.g., nations) in its focus on affluence, but analyses in this tradition have not usually focused on assessing the effects of inequalities internal to units (such as gender and racial inequalities) on environmental impacts. Here, we show that STIRPAT, although not without limitations, can assess the effects of various inequalities by incorporating more factors into the model and by interpreting results in a critical theoretical manner.
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