Chapter 2: Modernization: ideological cover for capitalist development
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This chapter investigates Modernization theory by focusing on the linkage between material interests and libidinal desires. It examines the relationship between modernization and imperialism, which often leads to genocide, colonial violence, and racist domination. It explores the modern fantasy of ‘freedom’, which obscures Western hypocrisy and the exploitative relations of capitalism, while also trying to avoid the anxiety and angst of genuine freedom and perpetual lack. It examines modern fetishism, including the fetishism of economic growth, drawing on the example of the 2020 UNDP report on human development and climate change.

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