Chapter 6: The further extension of social security to non-wage earners
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Since the origin of modern European social security systems, non-wage earners have been often (formally and/or effectively) excluded from social security coverage against certain contingencies. And, while many EU countries have progressively extended social security coverage and/or adapted their schemes to the characteristics of non-wage earners, some of the features of non-wage work still sometimes prevent non-wage earners from effectively accessing adequate social protection. This chapter analyses this process of extension of social security to non-wage earners, as well as the main challenges that it has experienced (such as work and earnings fragmentation, the on-demand character of work, the use of algorithmic management, and systemic market failures). These challenges are then connected with the Council’s Recommendation on access to social protection for workers and the self-employed. Based on this analysis, the chapter highlights some potential avenues for future research on the further extension of social security to non-wage earners.

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