Likelihood of Confusion
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  • Davis, Jennifer (2005), ‘Locating the Average Consumer: His Judicial Origins, Intellectual Influences and Current Role in European Trade Mark LawIntellectual Property Quarterly 183.

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  • Davis, Jennifer (2015), ‘Revisiting the Average Consumer: An Uncertain Presence in Trade Mark LawIntellectual Property Quarterly 15.

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  • Dinwoodie, Graeme and Dev Gangjee (2015), ‘The Image of the Consumer in European Trade Mark Law’ in Dorota Leczykiewicz and Stephen Weatherill (eds), The Image(s) of the Consumer in EU Law (Hart).

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  • European Union Intellectual Property Office (2022), Guidelines for Examination of European Union Trade Marks and Registered Community Designs at the European Union Intellectual Property Office.

  • Fhima, Ilanah and Dev Gangjee (2019), The Confusion Test in European Trade Mark Law (Oxford University Press).

  • Simon Fhima, Ilanah and Catrina Denvir (2015), ‘An Empirical Analysis of the Likelihood of Confusion Factors in European Trade Mark Law46 International Review of Intellectual Property and Competition Law 310.

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  • Weatherall, Kimberlee (2017), ‘The Consumer as the Empirical Measure of Trade Mark Law80 Modern Law Review 57.

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