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This chapter examines the evolution of US foreign policy toward the Middle East and North Africa (MENA) by examining the changing role of the United States in the post-Cold War era. Special attention will be given to the 9/11 attacks on the United States and its ramifications for the MENA region. The impact of US invasion of Afghanistan and Iraq, which led to long and painful occupations, is examined closely. Attention then turns to the regional rivalry between Iran and Saudi Arabia, on the one hand, and their secret negotiations, on the other, while examining their implications for the possible emergence of a new security structure in the region. We discuss the role of new actors in the region (such as China) in the wake of the decreasing US military footprint in the region. We expound on the emerging contours of US foreign policy under the presidency of Joe Biden. We end the chapter by analyzing the forces that inform the current dynamics of US foreign policy, and what may lie ahead.

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