Chapter 17: Lebanon: politics as permanent crisis
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Lebanon is a country that is simultaneously exceptional and ordinary when compared to the rest of the region. Relying on a broad historical narrative, this chapter introduces the most salient aspects of the Lebanese institutional system and focuses on the developments and challenges it has experienced since its modern foundation. Crucial characterizing elements of the Lebanese system have to do with the embedment in the constitution of sectarianism, the constant tensions between the weak state's constitutional order and strong socio-political actors and the perpetual condition of crisis that this process generates. A section is dedicated to the case of Hezbollah, given its unique domestic and regional role, and a concluding assessment highlights how, after the 2019 economic crash, the only path to recovery is through reforms which the political class is unwilling and unable to implement.

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