Chapter 3: Political Islam: a 40-year retrospective
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The year 2020 roughly corresponded with the 40th anniversary of the rise of political Islam on the world stage. This topic has generated intense debate and controversy about its impact on Muslims societies and international affairs more broadly, including how governments should respond to this socio-political phenomenon. This chapter has modest aims. It seeks to reflect on the broad theme of political Islam four decades after it first captured global headlines by critically examining two separate but interrelated controversies. The first theme is political Islam's acquisition of state power. Specifically, how have the various experiments of Islamism in power affected the popularity, prestige, and future trajectory of political Islam? Second, the theme of political Islam and violence is examined. In this section, I interrogate the claim that mainstream political Islam acts as a "gateway drug" to radical extremism in the form of Al Qaeda or ISIS. This thesis has gained popularity in recent years, yet its validity is open to question and should be subjected to further scrutiny and analysis. I examine these questions in this chapter.

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