Chapter 4: Towards a systematic understanding on the challenges of public procurement of artificial intelligence in the public sector
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There is increased interest amongst governments and public sector organisations about how to best integrate artificial intelligence into their day-to-day business processes. Yet, a large majority of technical know-how is concentrated outside of the governmental sector, and many governmental organisations are likely to rely on public procurement for their AI systems. Thus, there is a clear need for new insight into the process of AI procurement, challenges that may be encountered, and guidelines on how to potentially overcome such challenges. This chapter aims to make an initial contribution of such insight. Methodologically, this chapter presents a multiple case study of four European countries (Estonia, the Netherlands, Serbia, and the United Kingdom) who have drafted guidelines and recommendations for how to procure AI in the public sector. As a result of this research, it is possible to provide an overview of challenges that may be encountered during the procurement of AI in the public sector and potential solutions for the public sector to overcome such challenges.

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