The world of work has changed dramatically. Employees work in remote locations, they have different expectations, rigid systems are, by necessity, being replaced with much looser structures. In this chapter the authors suggest that the practice of performance measurement and management has responded in line with changes in the business environment and must continue to do so if it is still to remain effective. The chapter begins by tracing the evolution from management accounting and the Venetians (which could be described as the formal roots of performance measurement) to the Industrial Revolution and beyond. They then discuss current and future changes in the working environment and how performance measurement and management must respond.

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