Chapter 25: The White Ribbon movement and its achievement in uprooting the conservative Thai state
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The democratic campaigns among Thai youth began after the 2014 military coup and reached their peak in 2019-2021. They not only managed to institutionalise their political party, Future Forward, but Thai youngsters also effectively organised the biggest mass nationwide youth protests since the 1970s student movement. Their movement broke the previous norm of a centralised and rigid movement with a decentralised and dynamic mobilisation. Both online and on-site, peaceful and militant protests and campaigns successfully mainstreamed liberal and democratic demands, among the younger generation and the wider public, in opposition to the conservative military-backed government and, above all, they challenged the Thai monarchy. Despite the temporary decline of the mass protest after the end of 2021, owing to the repressive legal measures and the violent suppression of protests by the security forces, the contribution and impacts of the movement remained and successfully uprooted the core values of the conservative Thai state.

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