Chapter 7: The future of European welfare states
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Chapter 7 summarises the main findings of Welfare Chauvinism in Europe and explores them in view of the future of European welfare states. First, the chapter addresses the blame game on welfare chauvinism, which consists of mainly attributing welfare chauvinism to lower-educated groups instead of focusing on deeper institutional issues. Second, the chapter discusses potential future welfare alliances or further divisions. For example, over the past decades, the gap in support for government income redistribution between higher and lower educated is slowly closing. But could these trends lead to more exclusionary welfare stances, for instance towards migrants? Third, the chapter discusses social investment as a potential solution for the welfare-migration nexus since the public is (relatively) supportive of granting these policies to migrants. However, such a solution would require the quality of social investment policies to increase, including more inclusion for migrants. Fourth, the chapter turns to the evolution of the social dimension of the European Union, or Social Europe, as this has a particular focus on social investment and could potentially further strengthen migrants' access to it. The book closes with a few sceptical and hopeful remarks regarding the future of welfare states in times of increasing migration.

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