Chapter 10: A marine nexus approach for healthy ecosystems at sea
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Concerns about global food security and terrestrial resource depletion drive an increasing interest in the potential contribution of the world seas to provide food, energy and marine resources. New technologies and business sectors are developed to exploit them, including the development of offshore aquaculture and mariculture, offshore energy technologies, and deep sea mining. They take place next to more traditional activities and raise concerns on ecosystem impacts, including the marine ecosystem carrying capacity. In governance terms, these developments are paralleled by an increasing "domestication" of the world seas - where Marine Spatial Planning and International Treaty's strengthen marine governance. Thus, there is a need for the assessment of the marine socio-economic systems considering production functions, relations and their interactions. The chapter argues that current approaches are insufficiently 'nexus proof'. The potential benefits of a water-energy-food nexus approach are presented and recommendations are offered to adopt a marine nexus approach towards governance.

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