Chapter 4: Marxism and ecology: an ongoing debate
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The chapter aims at critically assess the debate on Marxism and Ecology. Given the vastness of such field of investigation, it assumes the notion of cycle (both of accumulation and of struggles) as a methodological compass. Accordingly, our hypothesis is that different encounters between Marxist reflections and the ecological crisis reflect the material conditions embodied in the historical cycles they emerged from. Hence, we first emphasize how environmental conditions on the one hand shape class-relations and, on the other, are/can be articulated within an eco-politics of the working class. Second, we show how such articulation is pursued in a variety of ways, depending on the specific features of any given cycle. In the anti-authoritarian cycle, it occurred by 'adapting' Marx's tenets to the unprecedented situation of a politicised ecological crisis. In the anti-globalisation cycle, it occurred by 're-reading' Marx and Engels' writings to uncover an ecological potential which remained hidden for too long a time. In the anti-austerity cycle, it occurs by employing revisited and/or enriched Marxian categories to make sense of and act upon the failure of capital's 'green' strategies.

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