Chapter 11: Theorizing modes of incorporation
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Since its earliest years as a discipline, sociological theorizing and empirical research on settlement has been a preoccupation in migration research, with a range of terms used to depict the social processes involved in newcomers either seeking to fit in and adjust to their new social environment or resisting doing so. A number of concepts have been developed to understand differing ‘modes of incorporation’, including assimilation, inclusion, integration, transnationalism, multiculturalism, interculturalism, and diversity. Despite the proliferation of competing concepts, two have proven to be the most theoretically robust and consequently have had the most significant impacts on empirical research: assimilation and multiculturalism. They have generally been employed in a limited way, focusing on the degree of parity immigrants have achieved vis-à-vis the native born in educational attainment, locations in the labor market, and other social realms. Largely left out of consideration are societal and cultural changes within the receiving society.

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