Chapter 2: The impact of post-industrialisation and neoliberal policies on education and youth employment
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Across Europe, the Americas, and the Asia/Pacific, transitions between education and employment have changed during the past four decades due to the decline in full-time employment opportunities that accompanied technological advances associated with post-industrialisation and the adoption of neoliberal economic policies. Across the occupational spectrum, full-time permanent jobs were replaced by part-time, short-term contract jobs. Although young people are encouraged to continue their educational careers for extended periods of time, delaying their entry into full-time employment, their investments are not always rewarded in the labour market. Furthermore, due to the pace of technological advances, today’s young people may need to return to education and training several times during their working careers to upskill and/or reskill in order to remain employed. Therefore, preparing future generations for life may become less about ensuring they are employable in particular occupations and more about ensuring they are adaptable in changing labour markets.

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