Chapter 8: Creative response in economic history
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Understanding how innovation comes about is essential to furthering economic development and sustainable transitions. Noting "creative response" (Schumpeter, 1947) as a broad notion of how agents respond to changes in their environment, this contribution surveys main contributions to our understanding of innovation as endogenous to social and economic mechanisms. Through a review of economic historical debates, this entry discusses the problem of to what extent significant innovations emerge "ab nihilo", or reflect the problems and opportunities of the day.

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