Across Europe, many formerly shrinking cities have started to grow again. Regrowth not only relates to population numbers but also to economic performance and is being mirrored in the increased attractiveness of those cities as places to live and work. Set against this background, the chapter analyses the factors driving regrowth in formerly shrinking cities across Europe. Based on an overview how regrowth after shrinkage as a phenomenon has developed during the last decades and giving some empirical examples as an illustration, it discusses the role and relevance of these driving factors, their interplay, and the impact of (local and supra-local) context. As part of a handbook of shrinking cities, the chapter systematically elaborates why some cities turned from population decline towards new growth while others did not. As a result, we also discuss what can be learned from our analysis for the wider urbanisation debate and the future of European urbanisation, particularly in light of the impacts of the COVID-19 pandemic.

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