Chapter 39: Alternative economies
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This chapter is concerned with economic practices and orientations that are alternatives to the sort of economic policy and practice that became the Washington Consensus. It begins by taking stock of the global status quo and the extent to which the current US and Chinese economic models represent breaks with neoliberalism. It then moves on to discuss three key sites for anthropological enquiry into alternative economies in different continents: food sovereignty in Europe, popular economies in Latin America, and universal basic income in Africa. The success of these initiatives and ideas, and the depth of the alternative that they present to neoliberalism and economic orthodoxy, are analysed. Finally, the concept of the commons is presented as a space and activity between state and market that has made a recent return both offline and online, in material and immaterial forms.

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