This chapter introduces the social network methodology as a tool for evaluating important aspects of research and development (R & D) programmes. Instead of surveying the literature broadly, we have chosen to expand on a few recent examples of actual application of the methodology for evaluative purposes and through them observe some of the standard (as well as non-standard) graph theory concepts at work. Consequently, the coverage is selective and for some issues spotty. For much broader coverage of theoretical concepts and empirical analysis, the interested reader should consult specialized volumes for social network method application such as Malerba and Vonortas (2009), books surveying the literature on social networks such as Grabher and Powell (2004), survey articles on strategic partnerships such as Hagedoorn et al. (2000) and Vonortas and Zirulia (2010), and volumes dealing with business strategy and policy regarding R & D collaboration and knowledge flows such as Nooteboom (1999), Vonortas (1997) and Caloghirou et al. (2004).
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