Chapter 9: Estimating avoided environmental emissions and environmental health benefits
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Awareness of the deleterious environmental impacts of fossil fuel combustion, adverse health events associated with poor air quality and values-based shifts toward sustainability have given rise to a growing emphasis on environmental accountability in program evaluation. Downstream environmental costs are not fully captured in market prices, providing a rationale for the public sector to mitigate negative externalities via policy and regulation, promotional campaigns and innovation programs. Such initiatives often create opportunities for the private sector by creating a more favorable risk/reward profile, accelerating new market development and building on emerging consumer preferences. Consequently, the ability to measure and monetize impacts on environmental emissions and related health benefits is of increasing interest to program evaluations. These benefits are conceptually important and in practice not insignificant in monetized value.

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