Handbook on the Theory and Practice of Program Evaluation
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Handbook on the Theory and Practice of Program Evaluation

Edited by Albert N. Link and Nicholas S. Vonortas

As this volume demonstrates, a wide variety of methodologies exist to evaluate particularly the objectives and outcomes of research and development programs. These include surveys, statistical and econometric estimations, patent analyses, bibliometrics, scientometrics, network analyses, case studies, and historical tracings. Contributors divide these and other methods and applications into four categories – economic, non-economic, hybrid and data-driven – in order to discuss the many factors that affect the utility of each technique and how that impacts the technological, economic and societal forecasts of the programs in question.
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Chapter 9: Estimating avoided environmental emissions and environmental health benefits

Alan C. O’Connor, Michael P. Gallaher, Ross J. Loomis and Sara E. Casey


Awareness of the deleterious environmental impacts of fossil fuel combustion, adverse health events associated with poor air quality and values-based shifts toward sustainability have given rise to a growing emphasis on environmental accountability in program evaluation. Downstream environmental costs are not fully captured in market prices, providing a rationale for the public sector to mitigate negative externalities via policy and regulation, promotional campaigns and innovation programs. Such initiatives often create opportunities for the private sector by creating a more favorable risk/reward profile, accelerating new market development and building on emerging consumer preferences. Consequently, the ability to measure and monetize impacts on environmental emissions and related health benefits is of increasing interest to program evaluations. These benefits are conceptually important and in practice not insignificant in monetized value.

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