Chapter 15: Marketing our co-operative advantage (MOCA): the challenges of implementation
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This literature review seeks to understand how and why certain organisational factors influence marketing strategy implementation. It will form a foundation on which to explore the implementation of a 'marketing our co-operative advantage' (MOCA) strategy. This was originally proposed by Webb (1996) who suggested that co-operatives should be proud of their member-owned and member-focused status and actively promote their difference to their members and the wider community (Webb 1996, 2004). To be successful, marketing strategies-such as MOCA-require both the formulation of appropriate strategies and effective implementation. Many writers point out that although much literature is devoted to formulating marketing strategy, there is little understanding of the challenges of its implementation (e.g. Simkin 2002; Voola and O'Cass 2010; Chimhanzi 2004; Laroche and Nioche 2006; Thorpe and Morgan 2007). In all sectors, marketing strategy implementation requires a coordinated and integrated approach to the interface of the marketing, HR and operations functions (Krohmer et al. 2002; Lorino and Tarondeau 2006) and includes 'behavioural and interpersonal process elements', e.g. individual motivation and commitment and organisational culture, leadership and learning (McGuinness and Morgan 2005; Laroche and Nioche 2006). One of the limitations of the relevant literature is that it has tended to lack an integrated view; much of the research focuses on individual subordinate components, e.g. management communication, HR policies.

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