Chapter 15: ServPPINs as instruments for realizing system innovations: two case studies in passenger transport in Austria
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Innovations in many areas tend to be characterized by a significant increase in technological and organizational complexity (Davies and Brady, 2000), and this holds also for passenger transport services. This development is due first to the manifold new technological opportunities that are arising, in particular from developments in information and communications technology (ICT), but second, also to new types of requirements for transport systems, for instance, in terms of fulfilling stricter environmental, resource-related and economic conditions. These new requirements and opportunities for innovation in transport systems cannot be met by the public sector alone, and the budgetary constraints of recent years have reinforced claims in favour of a retreat of the state. The liberalization and privatization of transport services is thus a third important development that is fiercely debated in many European countries. The diminishing role of the public sector in transport is part of a more fundamental shift towards the application of New Public Management principles in the provision of services of public interest (Di Meglio, Chapter 3, this volume). In fact, for more than 20 years we have seen a shift towards a stronger involvement of the private sector in the provision of passenger transport services, though to varying degrees across countries. These three developments point to an ongoing shift in the regime of passenger transport service provision. Such a regime shift requires changes in technology, organization and user behaviour in order to meet efficiency, environmental quality and other performance requirements.

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