Chapter 17: Policy developments and measures for enhancing ServPPINs dynamics
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Cooperative and network-based models of innovation are increasingly emerging in the service sector. The aim of these arrangements is to exploit synergies between the partners by means of pooling individual resources, competences and knowledge throughout several stages of the innovation process, and managing the uncertainty of the innovation process. In this context, public–private innovation networks in services (ServPPINs) are a specific form of innovation networks, bringing together private and public actors to provide new services (see Chapters 1 and 2 in this volume). ServPPINs are highly capable of performing specific tasks in the innovation process that are highly desirable from a policy point of view. First, ServPPINs combine the resources of heterogeneous partners such as firms and public organizations, but also consumers, non-governmental and/or non-profit organizations in order to utilize complementarities and synergies between them. Besides advantages arising from the division of labour within innovation processes, networks provide favourable opportunities to exploit synergies of different actors from different institutional backgrounds. Considering this, the rationale for the promotion of public–private innovation networks in the service sector is straight forward from the perspective of innovation-driven economic development. The ability of ServPPINs to integrate heterogeneous actors with their specific knowledge bases in the innovation process makes ServPPINs a preferred instrument for policy to promote innovation. Such arrangements are of particular relevance when it comes to tackling societal challenges, because solutions for far-reaching challenges usually require the involvement of different types of actors.

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