Chapter 8: Estimation of temporal variations in fan loyalty: application of multi-factor models
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Sports attendance has been the subject of extensive study in the sports economics literature (Noll, 1974; Siefried and Eisenberg, 1980; Humphreys, 2002; Schmidt and Berri, 2004; Krautmann and Hadley, 2006; Poitrasand Hadley, 2006; Ahn and Lee, 2007; Krautmann and Berri, 2007; Leeand Fort, 2008). Many studies have centered on the testing of the uncertainty outcome hypothesis. For example, Lee and Fort (2008) categorized uncertainty of outcomes into game uncertainty, playoff uncertainty and consecutive season uncertainty, and presented empirical evidence that the attendance of fans of Major League Baseball (MLB) is sensitive to changes in playoff uncertainty, but not to other types of uncertainty. Inelastic pricing has also been studied fairly extensively (Fort, 2004; Ahnand Lee, 2007; Krautmann and Berri, 2007). It is expected that sports teams will set their ticket prices in elastic regions, as most sports teams are local monopolistic firms.

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