Chapter 2: International trade in disembodied technology: trends, patterns and comparisons for European and OECD countries
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The 1990s have witnessed the emergence of global markets for knowledge and the increasing exchange of technology across organizations, across industries and across countries (Gambardella et al., 2007). International trade in technology increases with internationalization of patent activity via multinational enterprises strategies since 1990. Moreover new actors have emerged on the international market of technology. For instance, in 2006 China’s Gross Domestic Expenditure on Research and Development (GERD) reached 1.43 per cent and China aims at a goal of 2 per cent in 2010. International trade in technology is a major tool for globalization of innovation and knowledge. In 2000 European countries launched ambitious objectives to become the most competitive knowledge-based economy in the world. Unfortunately its results for R & D expenditures and patents were disappointing. In prospect of the assessment of the Lisbon Agenda in 2010, it seemed important to assessing the situation of the European countries about international trade in technology and knowledge. In other words, what about European countries’ connection to global research?

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