Chapter 2: The university of the future: an entrepreneurial stakeholder learning organization?
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This chapter explores the present and future pressures shaping the entrepreneurial nature of universities and the response to these pressures. It eschews the conventional association of entrepreneurship with business and commercialization of university intellectual property. It also goes beyond the concept of the Triple Helix (Etzkowitz, 2008) to a wider stakeholder model, which it explores as ëentrepreneurialí. It is centrally concerned with how universities, using a broader entrepreneurial paradigm, can negotiate their freedom and autonomy in the light of the creation of imposed ëmarketí conditions and mounting pressure from a wide range of stakeholders. Its central focus is on the dynamics of the Higher Education (HE) environment in the UK, with particular regard to the situation in England. It seeks to use this context to draw out lessons for the way in which the university paradigm, more generally, is changing throughout the world (Brennan and Shah, 2011), and it concludes with a suggested framework that might be used in practice to explore individual university development strategies for the future. The chapter builds on three earlier contributions that underpinned axioms and contexts that are important to understanding this chapter. The first (Gibb, 2005) sought to clarify the concepts of enterprise and entrepreneurship in an HE context and demonstrate their link to the creation of innovations of all kinds true to the ëideaí nature and tradition of universities as sources of imaginative use of knowledge (Whitehead, 1927; Newman, 2007).

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