A Developing Country Perspective
Edited by Pushpam Kumar and Ibrahim Thiaw
Chapter 6: Are the amounts of payments for environmental services enough to contribute to poverty alleviation efforts in developing countries?
Environmental conservation and poverty reduction are two areas receiving increasing attention from donors, governments, research organizations and development agencies around the world (Sachs and Reid 2006). The use of market-based instruments, such as payments for ecosystem services (PES) or conditional cash transfers (CCT), is considered to be among the most cost-effective instruments to achieve these environmental (Ferraro and Simpson 2002) and social (Rawlings 2005) goals. Both approaches involve payments that are transferred to a number of selected beneficiaries, previously identified in a targeting exercise as fulfilling a number of conditions designed to internalize an environmental externality in the case of PES, or a social externality in the case of CCT (Wunder 2007; World Bank 2009). Thus, PES are aimed at compensating landholders for the cost of providing positive environmental services to stakeholders that can directly pay (by market transaction) or indirectly pay (by using public funds from taxes or donors) for the services they expect to receive.
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