Chapter 4: Titles and effectivités in territorial disputes
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This chapter reviews the different types of titles to territory, focusing on those relating to territorial sovereignty. It discusses some doctrinal theories that have been controversial, such as the historical consolidation of titles and acquisitive prescription. It follows a discussion on the content and scope of the exercise of state authority over a territory, known by the French term effectivités. It concludes with an analysis of the relationship between titles and effectivités. A table summarizing the titles of territorial sovereignty is appended to this chapter.

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