In the current economic landscape, users have been shown to be a highly promising and fertile
external source of novel innovations. First, this chapter focuses on the importance and magnitude of
the open innovation paradigm and collaborative practices. Second, this chapter underlines, through a
body of work and on a wide variety of industries, the phenomenon of user innovation and stresses a
theoretical and empirical development of the concept. Third, this chapter paints a striking picture
of the trend of co-creation with users and shows that co-creation with users has grown in recent
years with the deployment of online communities, interactive platforms for creation, self-service
toolkits and companies specialized in crowdsourcing. Finally, this chapter provides details on two
favored and atypical co-creation targets with a high potential for innovation – lead users and
emergent nature consumers – and discusses the benefits and limits of co-creation and co-innovation
practices with users.
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