This chapter discusses how transnational entrepreneurs contribute to the global transfer of
knowledge and initiate regional development processes. Transnational entrepreneurs are
conceptualized as one type of diaspora entrepreneur who, unlike other types of entrepreneurs, set up
highly competitive firms that rely in their day-to-day business on dense linkages between two or
more locations. Being part of families or closed ethnic communities, these entrepreneurs are capable
of developing trust-based networks that allow for fast and low-cost knowledge exchanges and
knowledge generation processes at a worldwide scale. This generates important competitive advantages
compared to firms that do not have such linkages. By presenting case studies of self-employed
migrants in high-technology industries (so-called New Argonauts) and in the diamond sector, this
chapter demonstrates that transnational entrepreneurs are an important phenomenon in different
countries and industries with varying knowledge intensities, and can be analyzed at different
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