Edited by Benson Honig, Joseph Lampel and Israel Drori
Chapter 4: Organizational ingenuity in the commercialization of early-stage technological innovations
Organizational ingenuity represents the ability to create innovative solutions within structural constraints using limited resources and imaginative problem solving (Lampel et al., 2011). This chapter presents a case study in which one university (University A), constrained by the fact that it possesses no intellectual property (IP) of its own, utilized organizational ingenuity and an ideation team model, in partnership with an IP-rich university (University B) to increase the commercial potential of University B's inventions. This case within a university is an instructive example of organizational ingenuity. Understanding how and by whom entrepreneurial opportunities are discovered and created (Alvarez and Barney, 2007; Shane and Venkataraman, 2000) has persisted as a central question in the field of entrepreneurship (Wiklund et al., 2011). The subject of opportunities (Venkataraman, 1997) has received numerous conceptual and empirical studies, resulting in a critical body of knowledge in the entrepreneurship literature (Short et al., 2010). Individuals may create business ideas through various paths, such as serendipitous discovery or fortuitous chain of events. Additionally, as a means to launch their ventures based on more promising ideas, aspiring entrepreneurs may perform a 'systematic search' to discover opportunities (Fiet, 2007). Opportunity discovery may occur via deliberate search when entrepreneurs recognize opportunities as 'problem-solution pairings' (Hsieh et al., 2007). For instance, new business ideas may emerge when individuals are unsatisfied with current products and thus develop alternatives to solve existing problems.
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