Chapter 2: Standards and innovation: a brief survey of empirical evidence and transmission mechanisms
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This chapter offers a brief survey of the literature as to the effects of standards on innovation, specifically how markets move from standards to innovation. The main observations are that the direct effects of standards on innovation are mixed: sometimes supportive but sometimes constraining, even at the same time. These direct effects are perhaps why businesses are often skeptical about the role of standards in innovation. However, the indirect effects of standards are generally supportive, and it is here perhaps that the biggest pay-off from standardization is to be found. Standards lead to benign changes in the economic environment, and these changes can foster innovation. These effects are, perhaps, less obvious to the business observer, but greater in overall importance.

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