Chapter 4: Standards, systems of innovation and policy
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This chapter examines standards within the historical development of the systems of innovation concept, which has become a core paradigm for the development of science, technology and innovation policy. The historical roots of this concept are traced alongside the evolution of thinking about the role of standards in the economy. The increasingly networked nature of both technology and market is identified as a key conceptual bridge between the subjects of innovation and standards that has cross-fertilized both fields to this day. However, the focus on disruption and change in innovation policy has overshadowed the complementary need for stability, consolidation and industry building, which is where the functional role of standards becomes most visible. A framework is proposed that situates standards and standardization as specific functions in the systems of innovation model.

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