Chapter 10: Poland at the renewable energy policy crossroads: an incongruent Europeanization?
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The chapter examines two cases of renewable electricity and biofuels promotion in Poland, using the concepts of Europeanization, advocacy coalition framework and policy monopoly. Overall, the chapter finds that in the analyzed cases the different mechanisms of Europeanization manifest themselves in quite different ways. At the EU and domestic levels Poland has frequently acted as a foot-dragger and laggard with regard to renewable electricity policy. The EU directives in this field have been implemented by Poland only formally, without good prospects of reaching the goals (‘superficial’ Europeanization). The main reasons are close links between government and state-owned energy enterprises, which fear the changes to the status quo in the energy policy. In contrast, the Polish government embraced the targets of 2003 biofuels directive (policy taking), although its implementation turned out to be very inefficient (partial Europeanization). But since Poland has been in favour of developing only first-generation biofuels due to their assumed higher job creation potential in the farming sector, it has opposed measures towards developing second-generation biofuels at the EU level. Reasons for this incongruent Europeanization in the analyzed policy fields have mainly been different resources, belief systems and opportunity structures of their dominant advocacy coalitions. Keywords: advocacy coalition framework, biofuels policy, Europeanization, Poland, policy monopoly, renewable electricity policy

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