Chapter 14: External governance and Europeanization beyond borders: EU biofuel policies in Mozambique
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Transport biofuels have been intensively promoted by the European Union (EU) in the past decade. Increased production and consumption of these fuels started an ongoing debate about the potential risks for environmental quality, food security and the well-being of local communities. Critics argue that without a system to ensure sustainable production of biofuels within and outside the EU, policy support should be discontinued. A key point of contention is the capacity of the EU to ensure that policy support in the EU does not translate into unsustainable biofuels production in geographically distant regions. The aim of this chapter is to explore the influence of the EU on the development of the biofuels sector in developing countries. Mozambique, a least-developed country with weak institutional frameworks for environmental and social protection, and high potentials for large-scale biofuels production and export, was selected as an empirical case study. The analysis focuses on: (1) the governance mechanisms employed by the EU to influence the biofuels sector in Mozambique; and (2) the results of the EU governance in terms of rules and values adoption and application in Mozambique. The findings show that in the case of Mozambique the EU employed primarily market governance, while hierarchical and network modes of governance were largely overlooked. The most evident outcome of this governance strategy can be seen in the level of adoption of EU rules and values into Mozambican policies, especially concerning greenhouse gas emissions. Practical application of EU rules and values was, however, negligible. The chapter concludes by suggesting a more coordinated use of the available modes of external governance. Keywords: biofuels policy, Europeanization, external EU governance, food security, Mozambique, renewable energy policy

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