This chapter discusses the Court of Justice case law on horizontal application of the general principles of EU law since the Mangold judgment. It argues that, whilst the disapplication of national law in contrast with an EU general principle initially seemed to be premised on primacy only, the horizontal direct effect rationale has progressively emerged. The chapter therefore reflects on the constitutional implications of this evolutionary process on the legal status of individuals in today's Union and on the relationships between the general principles of EU law and other EU law sources.
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