Chapter 14: Liberty and democracy as fundamental constitutional principles of EU law
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The chapter tracks the process of the constitutionalisation of the constitutional principles of liberty and democracy in the EU by distinguishing four main phases; namely, i) the phase of implicit democracy and democracy's motivational relevance in the 1960s and 70s, ii) the phase of denationalising democracy (1979-1991), iii) the phase of 'developmental democracy' in the 1990s and iv) the constitutionalisation of democracy and liberty in the new millennium; and v) the Lisbon Treaty's innovations in institutional design and the process of reform in this area and the Court of Justice's contributions to upholding and promoting these constitutional principles.

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