The chapter explores the EU general principle of equality between men and women. It draws a distinction between non-discrimination and equality as stipulated in the EU Charter and explores to what degree the CJEU has adopted a similar approach within its case law on the general principle. Within that context it specifically considers different notions of equality prevalent within the case law and the traditions of the Member States, the variable personal scope of sex as a protected characteristic and the positive duties enshrined in the equality concept.
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